Sustainable management in spite of strong Swiss franc?

The increasingly strong Swiss franc poses problems to many Swiss companies. Will sustainability remain relevant in that situation? Sustainable Management aims at improving the environmental and social performance, with the goal of strengthening the company's competitivity. Sustainability and strong franc are therefore no alternatives, but have to be tackled concurrently. This thought is discussed by Arthur Braunschweig in a short German language article , together with comments by entrepreneurs Christian Hunziker and Hans Ruedi Schweizer. The article appeared in the "CSR" supplement of the Zurich "Sonntagszeitung" on July 5th, 2015.

July 2015


Integrated management system at Energie 360°

The Zurich based Energie 360° AG has successfully "environmentalized" its management system and received ISO 14001 certification. E2 coached Energie 360° AG for the last 18 months in that undertaking.

(June 2015)


KVZ Business School is 'Eco-school'

KVZ Business School was awarded the title 'eco-school' in this program supported by the Zürich Canton school administration. KVZ BS is the first school on its level of education (professional schools and gymnasia) to receive this award. Since autumn 2013, KVZ-BS has been working on its eco-concept, supported by E2. In the eco-team, headed by a prorector, teachers, students and staff develop various projects, such as anchoring environment in the internal organisation, improving recycling possibilities, and environmental information on the school. (Link to the project 'Umweltschulen' (Eco-Schools))

(May 2014)


Q&A on photovoltaic today

Many erroneous ideas about photovoltaic can be heard. Daniel Rufer comments some of these prejudices in this explanatory note, based on detailed assessments and reliable sources. The note is available in German and French.

(April 2014)


The improved LCA of photovoltaics

How much does photovoltaic electricity production impact on the environment? We critically recalculated the LCA of photovoltaics, based on the recent technological developments of production, conversion efficiency and of mounting systems. This leads to a further improved LCA of photovoltaic electricity, as, e.g., the emission of greenhouse gases per kWh solar electricity are reduced to less than half of the most recently published values. The results are relevant for any assessment of solar electricity, notably on the Swiss Energy Strategy 2050. The results are available in two versions (German only):
-- The article "Die bessere Ökobilanz von Solarstrom", published in Umwelt Perspektiven, nbr. 4/2013, pages 9 - 13
-- The more detailed article "Ökobilanz von Solarstrom", published as PDF on in September 2013 (18 pp.). In addition, you can find the calculation tables to these articles as PDF. (If you are interested in receiving the Excel file, please do contact us.)

(September 2013)


Energy-plus-house: Publication on basics and experiences

Energy-plus-houses –i.e. 'the house as power station' – produce more (solar) energy than their total energy consumption for heating, hot water and electricity. Based on a family house which produces three times the energy it consumes, Heidi Huber, Thomas Metzler and Daniel Rufer describe in this 48-page German-language publication the basic principles and practical approaches to develop Energy-plus-houses. Energy- and ecobalances (LCAs), economic assessments, information on feeding back electricity into the grid, and other issues are discussed. (Table of content and order form at the Zürich based publishing house 'Faktor Verlag'

(January 2013)


A energy-plus-house put to test

The prizewinning residential house in Küsnacht (ZH/CH) produces three times as much (solar) energy compared to its total consumption. The report in the Swiss journal 'Umwelt Perspektiven' discusses the energy balance of the house, the daily and annual energetic clearing, and the total energy balance including building materials, as well as financial aspects of this Energy-plus-house. (More)

(December 2012)


'ibex' designated for tourism prize

The ibex sustainability label for hotels, which was developed by E2 together with Saladino Umweltprojekte, was designated as one of the twenty possible prize winners of this year's "Milestone", the Swiss tourism prize. (Milestone media news in German and French.)

(September 2012)


ibex fairstay

The ibex sustainability label for hotels, co-developed by E2, is now called 'ibex fairstay'. The new internet page (in German and French) offers informations on all ibex-labelled hotels, specials, background information etc.

(Juli 2012)


Workshop on the LCA of recycled and new concretes at the 'Natur' congress in Basel

With the Swiss association of gravel and concrete FSKB, Arthur Braunschweig lead a workshop on the LCA on concretes from natural stone and from recycled building materials. The workshop in German language was part of the 'Natur' congress in february 2011 in Basel.

(February 2011)


Ibex-Label gets high marks

The Lucerne University of applied sciences and arts (Hochschule Luzern) recently published a Study (in German only) on sustainability oriented labels for tourism and hotels. From among more than 300 labels, it identifies the "Ibex-label" as one of only four tourism labels wordwide, which cover all sustainability dimensions with high credibility. Forthermore, the Ibex is considered "the best-known sustainability label for hotels in Switzerland". E2 has co-developed the Ibex-label and is engaged in its certification comitee.

(November 2010)


Environmental screening of hundreds of packagings at Coop Switzerland

FE2 assessed the packagings of all food products labelled as Coop products from an environmental viewpoint. This included an LCA approach. But the core of the analysis for once was not geared to compare specific packaging alternatives, but an overall assessment of hundreds of packagings (therefore 'screening') from varous suppliers.

(December 2009/September 2010)


New Partner at E2

Gaby Oetterli is back at E2 and joins the company as a new Partner. She spent three years in Hong Kong at the ‘Business Environment Council’ consulting companies in Asia in the area of Corporate Sustainability. Before that she worked for six years as a Consultant at E2.

(May 2010)


SANU-Course on "Integrated Management Systems"

The next holding of this 6 day course will take place between Nov. 2010 and March 2011. The course is spread over five months in order to allow participants to incorporate the learnings into their own work environment. E2 will again co-chair this course on "Integrated Management Systems", offered by the Swiss education organisation SANU. The course is held in German. It covers the development and improvement of a management system on environment, social issues, quality and health&safety. Next to the course days, each participant writes a short thesis, where possible directly on his or her company. Further information can be found in German and French at starting late spring 2010 (until then via email to E2 or to SANU, Anne-Christine Chappot).

(May 2010, amended)


Presentation of gravel, concrete and building LCA (Ecobalance)

At the french speaking winter session of the Swiss Gravel and Concrete Association, E2 presented first results of the environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of gravel and concrete. The study, which was made at the 'Hochschule Rapperswil', has a special focus on the environmental effects of using recycled concrete.

(April 2010)


BEKB | BCBE with Prime Sustainabilty Rating

BEKB | BCBE has been rated "Prime" by the rating agency oekom research. Our long-term customer BEKB | BCBE is thus - compared to other companies in the banking sector - among the leading companies with higher-than-average performances in the social and ecological sector.

(March 2010)


McDonald's Europe with a certified Carbon Footprint for its entire value chain

McDonald's Europe has, with the support of E2, calculated the 2007 Carbon Footprint (the greenhouse gas emissions) of its own processes in restaurants etc., of its suppliers starting with agriculture, as well as the traffic of motorized customers. In supply chain, the assessment covers 80 % of spend, covering e.g. food and beverages, logistics but also paper, plastics and toys. The calculations and assumptions were verified by SGS London. This wide ranging system analysis will serve as basis for focused optimizations and improvements over the next years..

(December 2009)


Good Ratings for Carbon Disclosure

The importance of reporting to the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) increases steadily for listed companies. Swiss Ethos foundation and Bank Pictet have analysed the carbon reporting 2008 of Swiss companies. Among the Swiss top 10, three companies are supported by E2: Berne Cantonal Bank BEKB | BCBE, Credit Suisse and Vontobel. BEKB was ranked 3rd

(November 2009)


Integrated Corporate Responsibility Report McDonald's Switzerland

Based on its environmental and societal reporting, McDonald's Switzerland for the first time published an integrated Corporate Responsibility report about its activities in Switzerland and Liechtenstein. E2 supported McDonald's in the report development and the environmental analysis (ecobalance, greenhouse gas calculation, etc.). The report, which was verified by SQS, covers the years 2006/07 as well as their new goals. It is available in French and German. A detailed GRI-Index covering also earlier McDonald's publications is available as well.

(October 2008)


Commendation for the Sustainability Report of Ernst Schweizer AG, Metallbau

Ernst Schweizer AG, a leading Swiss company in metal construction, with 525 collaborators, has been publishing annual sustainability reports since 2003, with the support of E2. The reports inform in detail about Ernst Schweizer's market, social, environmental and financial performance. In the newest rating of Swiss Company Reports done by the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Ernst Schweizer AG reached the 11th place, which is the top result among the medium sized companies.

(October 2008)


Seminar on Energy and Greenhouse Gas Strategy for Companies

Increasingly, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions get strategic relevance for companies. E2 participates as keynote tutor at a new seminar by SANU which discusses possible approaches by companies. Detailed information (in German) can be found here here.

(September 2008)


CO2-neutral Sunstar Hotels

Sunstar-Hotels is the first hotel chain worldwide achieving full climate neutrality: From the 2008 summer season onwards, each stay at Sunstar, including all key supply and disposal chains (like food production and waste treatment), will be climate neutral. E2 has supported the development of Sunstar's new company strategy, which focuses on guest activity and sustainability. E2 has also calculated Sunstar's CO2eq-footprint. More...

(April 2008)


E2 on Greenhouse Gas Protocol and ISO 14064

At the 34. Swiss LCA Diskussion Forum, A. Braunschweig gave the introductory presentation on the "Relation between LCA and Greenhouse Has Accounting", i.e. between the ISO standards on product life cycle assessment (ISO 14040) and Greenhouse Gas accounting of organisations (ISO 14064). The forum was a cooperation of E2 and Ecointesys. The presentation of E2 is here.

(March 2008)


Carbon Disclosure Project

The Carbon Disclosure Project gains importance. Investors are increasingly using the data on corporate climate strategies published there. E2 more than ever supports clients in developing climate strategies and reporting against the standards of the greehouse gas protocol in the CDP-questionnaire.

(March 2008)


New LCA weighting method "UBP'06" (Ecological Scarcity '06) published

The fully reworked weighting method for LCA and Ecobalances "Ecological Scarcity 2006" has been pre-published by öbu and is downloadable (in German) here. This new, third version of this weighting method (authors: ESU-services, project management: A. Braunschweig/E2, G. Hildesheimer/öbu, N. Egli/BAFU) offers up-to-date weighting factors for the well known issues, but also additional ecofactors for environmental issues which could not be assessed in LCA hitherto, such as fresh water use. This new weighting method will be included in commercial LCA softwares such as EMIS, Regis or SimaPro.

(March 2008)


BEKB with Sustainability Mission Statement

BEKB | BCBE is the first cantonal bank in Switzerland with a generic sustainability mission statement on its environmental and social responsibility. You can find the new sustainability mission statement here

(January 2008)


Fourth Environmental Report of the Swiss Federal Administration

The environmental impact of all administrative units having introduced the environmental management system RUMBA was reduced by 8 % til to-date. In its introduction to this new report, Swiss President Ms. Calmy-Rey reiterates the government's aim to reduce the environmental impact of each departement by at least 10 % in the coming 10 years. The report was developed with E2's support and can be downloaded at

(July 2007)


Sustainability report of Ernst Schweizer AG, Metallbau

In its 3rd sustainability report, this leading metalworks SME presents its current services to clients, staff, society, environment and shareholders. Next to their performance indicators, Ernst Schweizer also publishes their sustainability goals and the state of implementation. The report's concept was developed in co-operation with E2.

(June 2007)


Globalisation and Sustainability

In his speech "Globalisation and Sustainability  a contradiction?", Arthur Braunschweig discusses the relation between these two concepts, and why globalisation and the goal of sustainable development may be seen as the two sides of one coin. The speech in German language can be downloaded here.

(May 2007)


E2 develops sustainable company strategy with Romabau-Gerinox AG

Romabau-Gerinox AG is a leading SME in mechanical engineering, located in Weinfelden/TG. Supported by E2, Romabau-Gerinox has redefined its company strategy, based on the principles of sustainable development. For more information in German see here.

(May 2007)


E2 teaches on  "LCA" at Zurich University

The Institute for Environmental Sciences (IfU) at Zurich University again offers a three-day course on Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Ecobalancing (in German), given by Arthur Braunschweig. Participants will be enabled to interpret LCAs and Ecobalances and co-operate in their development. A short description can be found here. Further information may be obtained at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or at the IfU (Susann Eichenberger, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it )

(May 2007)


Conference on "Sustainability and Corporate Strategy" on November 10th

What is an integrated sustainable corporate strategy? This question is the focus of this year’s St. Gallen Sustainability Forum, where central aspects of strategic management are discussed.

E2 Management Consulting is this year’s partner of the Institute for Economy and the Environment of the University of St. Gallen in organising this conference, which exceptionally will take place in Zurich on November 10th.

Conference program and registration are available here.

(September 2006)


E-Learning Course on Management of Corporate Sustainability

E2 has developed a two hour e-learning course on "Management of Corporate Sustainability" together with the University of  St. Gallen and the Swiss Virtual Business School. Co-authors of the course are Prof. Dr. Thomas Dyllick and Oliver Schmid-Schönbein.

The online course serves as a training tool for management, introduces the paradigm of corporate sustainability and allows for a company-specific analysis of risks and opportunities. It also gives guidance on the implementation of corporate sustainability.

Have a look at the demo version of the course or download the info brochure. The course can be accessed online at

(September 2006)


E2: New Partner - New Topic

As new managing partner, David Keller has strengthened E2 since the beginning of 2006 with regards to both content and human resources:

private involvement in development cooperation. Clients are companies, foundations and wealthy individuals who want to actively invest in development projects in a focussed manner. David Keller has many years of experience and a broad network of "social entrepreneurs".


Credit Suisse: First Larger Company to become Greenhouse Gas Neutral

Credit Suisse is the first larger company in Switzerland to become greenhouse gas neutral. E2 has significantly supported Credit Suisse in the last two years in developing and implementing a climate strategy which is based on the four paths of optimising operations, capital expenditure, substitution and compensation.

(May 2006)


E2's Ads on Sustainability in Management

Short, but to the point: as of May 24th, 2006 E2’s ads will appear in the NZZ every Wednesday and Saturday. You can have a look at them here.

(May 2006)


McDonald's Switzerland's First Social Report

McDonald's Switzerland reports about the social dimension of its products and activities for the first time: Food and Nutrition, Employees as well as Society are key topics of McDonald's Switzerland's first CSR report. E2 advised McDonald's during the conceptual work. The Swiss CSR report supplements McDonald's first European CSR report published in 2005

(April 2006)


New Partner at E2

E2 enters 2006 with new drive, strengthening itself both with regards to content as well as human resources. As of the beginning 2006, David Keller joins E2 as managing partner. Davic Kellerer focuses on sustainable-oriented private development cooperation.

(January 2006)


Marketing for sustainable "Ibex"-Hotels

Sustainable "Ibex"-Hotels currently offer reduced rates for the readers of the Zurich "Tages-Anzeiger" in January 2006. Details (in german). In 2006, further marketing activities are planned with Mobility Car-Sharing and with the Swiss "Club of the Car-Less". E2 developed and manages the "Ibex" sustainability certification for Hotels.

(January 2006)


Praise for the Swiss Federal Administration’s Environmental Management

The Council of States’ business examination board certified that the Federal Administration conserves its use of electricity, water, paper and other resources. The design and the implementation of RUMBA (Resource and Environmental Management of the Federal Administration) is purposeful and appropriate. The environmental impact of the affected departments has been reduced. (News from the TA of 9.11.2005)

E2 is significantly involved in the design and implementation of the Swiss Federal Administration’s Environmental Management.


Sustainability Report of Ernst Schweizer AG, Metallbau

With 500 employees, Schweizer belongs to the leading metal construction companies. Schweizer’s second sustainability report, which can be downloaded here, reports on the company’s performance towards customers, employees, society, the environment and investors. Schweizer not only published a comparison of indicators with previous years, but also the internally set sustainability goals and achievement of objectives.

(November 2005)


The Swiss Federal Administration’s Effective Environmental Management

E2 has been supporting the Swiss Federal Administration to build up their environmental management RUMBA in over 70 departments. The recently published second environmental report shows clear improvements in resource consumption and environmental impacts. The report can be downloaded in German, French and Italian at

(October 2005)


Trend towards Sustainability in Real Estate Investments

On behalf of Rhomberg Bau AG and together with Flatz & Partners, E2 carried out a survey amongst institutional investors regarding the topic of sustainable real estate investments. The key results can be downloaded here.

(October 2005)


Sustainability Certification for Sunstar-Hotels and Boldern

The Sunstar hotel chain is the first hotel chain to be assessed according to the Ibex sustainability label. All seven hotels achieved 4 (of 5 possible) Ibexes. Next to achieving the highest award of 5 Ibexes, the convention center 'Boldern' (Männedorf/Zürich) is also the first Swiss hotel to obtain the EU environmental label for hotels. Together with the Ö+ Association, E2 developed the Ibex Label for hotels run in a sustainable manner.

(June 2005)


Internal Environmental Performance Indicators for the Financial Industry

The VfU Indicators 2005 project has updated the VfU internal environmental performance indicators developed in 1996. The final results of the project (report and calculation file) can be downloaded at

(May 2005)


BEKB | BCBE (Berner Kantonalbank) certified to ISO 14001

BEKB | BCBE has been carrying out internal  environmental protection since 1996. Thanks to pragmatic measures, its  environmental impacts and costs have been substantially reduced in recent years. In October 2003, BEKB | BCBE became certified to ISO 14001 for its internal  environmental managament and logistics areas.

Since then, the bank's products and services have also been integrated in the  environmental management system. In November 2004, following a successful certification audit, the ISO 14001 certification was expanded to include products. As a result, BEKB | BCBE is the first bank in Switzerland to have an ISO 9001 (quality management) and ISO 14001 certified management system covering the entire bank.

(November 2004)


McDonald's Switzerland publishes its Environmental Report 2004 with a new design

The fourth environmental report published by McDonald's Switzerland addresses various audiences using 3 different formats: the most comprehensive information can be found at the McDonald's website or directly at McDonald's Switzerland's environmental webpages. The casually designed printed summary also contains information on environmentally relevant aspects and describes the results of the last two years. Lastly, a flyer informing guests about a number of key environmental issues for McDonald's Switzerland can be found within McDonald's restaurants. E2 supported McDonald's conceptually and in carrying out the eco-balance.

(November 2004)


Sustainability at Ernst Schweizer AG, Metallbau

The Ernst Schweizer AG, Metallbau is a family-owned business with 500 employees, which has just published its first comprehensive sustainability report. E2 has been supporting Ernst Schweizer AG over many years to integrate sustainability issues within its mission statement, strategy, annual planning and management system. The report, which can be downloaded here, explains the company’s holistic sustainability approach.

(October 2004)


For the first time McDonald's Europe reports comprehensively on its environmental management and effects

In its first Environmental Report, McDonald's Europe describes its environmental aspects, its own environmental performance and the upcoming challenges for the fastfood business in Europe. The environmental aspects span the entire added value chain - "from the stable to the table". The report also contains an analysis of the environmental relevance, based on a rough corporate eco-balance, of the different environmental aspects.

(September 2004)


3 new publications on sustainability management

E2 published three new articles on sustainability management in spring 2004.



(April 2004)


Canon (Schweiz) AG's Success

Canon (Schweiz) AG has been publishing an annual environmental report already since 1994. The new 2003 report shows how the company's overall environmental impact was reduced by 31% over the last 8 years during a time of growing revenues (for details see E2 was involved during the development of Canon's certified quality and environmental management systems and during the production of the environmental reports.

(April 2004)


The Bâloise Group published its first sustainability report

The report builds on Bâloise's management principles and describes the company's sustainability aspects, ranging from its management of human, financial and environmental resources to its products and communication. E2 accompanied Bâloise's sustainability team intensively during the development of the report's concept.

(February 2004)


The PetroplastVinora Group, supported by E2, was recertified to ISO 14001

In a concentrated two-month project, the basic principles of an EMS for the plastics processing company were further developed: relevant environmental aspects including a company ecobalance were compiled, environmental law documents were reviewed, the environmental programme was updated. The results of the ecobalance and the financial assessment unfolded important new synergies between financial and environmental optimisation.

(February 2004)


BEKB | BCBE (Berner Kantonalbank)

Since 1996, the BEKB | BCBE has carried out internal environmental protection activities. Environmental impacts and costs were substantially reduced in the past few years as a result of pragmatic measures. Within internal environmental management, the BEKB | BCBE expanded its bank-wide ISO 9001 certifed quality management system according to the  requirements of ISO 14001. The certification of internal environmental management according to ISO 14001 was successfully completed in October 2003.

(December 2003)


ISO 14001 Certificate for MIB AG

MIB AG developed the elements required of the ISO 14001 standard for environmental management, and integrated them within their existing ISO 9001 certified management system. During the project, the  company already gradually began improving their own internal environmental performance, as well as their performance towards clients. MIB AG successfuly achieved certification to ISO 9001/14001 in September 2003. facility manager, MIB AG oversees a large  number of Credit Suisse's facilities in Switzerland. With E2's  support.

(December 2003)


The Swiss Federal Administration's Second Environmental Report

The Resource and Environmental Management of the Swiss Federal Administration encompasses the ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) and the VBS (the Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports), as well as over 60 federal departments. E2 contributed significantly during the development of the environmental management system and during the production of the second environmental report. The report in German, French and Italian, as well as further information, is available at

(November 2003)


MIB AG's Energy and Materials Report

As facility manager, MIB AG oversees a large number of Credit Suisse's facilities in Switzerland. With E2's support, MIB AG published its "Energy and Materials Report 2002" under Credit Suisse CSG mandate. Besides covering the environmental management system and the energy and materials flows, for the first time the report also contains an eco-balance analysis of ca. 400 buildings. The report is available in German and French in brochure and PDF format at MIB AG.

(August 2003)


Internal Environmental Performance Indicators for the Financial Industry

The VfU Indicators 2003 project has updated the VfU internal environmental performance indicators developed in 1996. The draft results of the project (report and calculation file) can be downloaded for public consultation at

(April 2003)


Social Performance Indicators for the Financial Industry

The SPI-Finance 2002 project has developed indicators to measure the social performance of financial institutions. The  final report is now available to download at The project delivered one of the first sector-specific supplements to the Global Reporting Initiative GRI "Sustainability Reporting Guidelines" 2002.

(January 2003)


Zürcher Kantonalbank certified to ISO 14 001

Zürcher Kantonalbank (ZKB) is the first Swiss cantonal bank to certify their environmental management system to the ISO 14 001 standard. ZKB, with the support of E2, developed a process-oriented EMS, which was audited by and certified through SQS.

(Dezember 2002)


Measure and communicate the sustainability of hotels

In co-operation with hotels, E2 developed the  first "Sustainability Certification" for hotels. The method assesses a hotel's social, environmental, regional and economic performance, as well as its sustainability management. The maximum award is 5 ibexes. Eleven hotels and conference centres received their first Certificate on 28.11.02. Both traditional hotels and hotels that are  environmentally/sustainability oriented were participating. The certification is part of the EU-project "VISIT" on Sustainable tourism. Information on methodology (Adobe, 409 KB) as well as on the label bearer Ö-plus incl. the certified hotels.

(November 2002)


E2 uses ecologically produced electricity

Sinces spring 2002, we are fully using "eco-electricity" for our office, based on the Swiss electricity ecolabel "Naturmade": Our supplier EWZ guarantees us that 95 % of the electricity we buy is produced by hydropower (of high environmental level), 5 % from solar power. All these installations have been labelled "Naturmade Star"

(July 2002)


Publication of MIB AG's Energy and Resources Report

As Facility Manager, MIB AG advises a large numer of CSG's banking buildings. Together with MIB AG, E2 conceptually shaped and produced MIB AG's "Energy and Resources Report 2000". The report covers the environmental management systems as well as the environmental performance of over 400 buildings used by CSG. The report is available in German and French in print and as PDF file from MIB AG.

(July 2002)


Basler Versicherungen publishes first Environmental Report

Basler Versicherungen recently published their first environmental report, comprehensively covering their environmental activities. E2 Management Consulting AG accompanied the production of this first environmental report from a Swiss retail insurance. To order the report: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

(June 2001)


Award for Canon’s Environmental Report

The Canon (Schweiz) AG's Environmental Report 2000, which was produced with support from E2 Management Consulting AG, won the 1st prize in the large company category of the ÖBU environmental report awards 2001.

(March 2001)


Environmental Performance Indicators for the Financial Industry

During the EPI-Finance 2000 project, E2 Management Consulting AG, together with financial institutions from Germany and Switzerland, developed standardised environmental performance indicators for the financial industry.

(November 2001)